ixayotl (Mdz59r)

ixayotl (Mdz59r)

Glyph or Iconographic Image Description: 

This iconographic example of ixayotl (the label we are giving to this girl's tears without having a Nahuatl gloss to back up our assessment) is presented here for the purpose of making comparisons with glyphs and glyphic elements and seeking further substantiation. In this example, a girl with short hair is looking toward the viewer's left, inclining her head, and crying. Her tears are shown in two short streams, the longer one with a droplet at the end. Having these two streams seems to suggest that they are in the process of falling (showing movement). They look much like glyphs for water. The contextualizing image shows that she is kneeling with her hands tied, and the texts explains in Spanish how the mother is punishing her daughter.

Description, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood

Added Analysis: 

A great many glyphs in this collection show men and women with tears. Icno- (humble or sad) and choca (the verb to cry) will often involve faces with tears. Widows and widowers will be shown crying, too. See some examples below.

Added Analysis, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood

Gloss Image: 
Gloss Diplomatic Transcription: 

muchacha de .X. aos. que
su madre la esta cas
tigando dandole de

Gloss Normalization: 

muchacha de diez años, que su madre la está castigando, dandole de palos

Gloss Analysis, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood

Source Manuscript: 
Date of Manuscript: 

c. 1541, or by 1553 at the latest

Creator's Location (and place coverage): 

Mexico City

Cultural Content, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood


lágrimas, tears, sadness, tristeza, emociones, emoción

Glyph or Iconographic Image: 
Relevant Nahuatl Dictionary Word(s): 
Image Source: 

Codex Mendoza, folio 59 recto, https://digital.bodleian.ox.ac.uk/objects/2fea788e-2aa2-4f08-b6d9-648c00..., image 128 of 188.

Image Source, Rights: 

Original manuscript is held by the Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, MS. Arch. Selden. A. 1; used here with the UK Creative Commons, “Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License” (CC-BY-NC-SA 3.0)

Historical Contextualizing Image: