onxiquipilli pesos (Chav1)

onxiquipilli pesos (Chav1)

Glyph or Iconographic Image Description: 

This glyph-notation shows a frontal view of two, square, sacred bags called xiquipilli. Each one had a numerical value of 8,000, and here they are referring to pesos. So, with two (on-, short for ome) of them here, the signs are combining to represent 16,000. The bags have handles on the top and what looks like a loincloth design in the middle. Each one also has a dark border around the perimeter of the square filled with small white circles.

Description, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood

Added Analysis: 

Our Online Nahuatl Dictionary refers to a number of xiquipilli examples where the contents were incense (copalli) or cacao (cacahuatl). The number 8,000, expressed as a xiquipilli, could also refer to pesos and to years. Goods counted by 8,000 were often tribute payments. These bags are red in this example because they are part of a grand total, where the subtotals were in black and the grand total was painted in red.

Compare the cenxiquipilli (single bag) below, and note how these sacks compare to the xiquipilli in the Codex Mendoza, which are rounded.

Added Analysis, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood

Gloss Image: 
Gloss Diplomatic Transcription: 


Gloss Normalization: 


Gloss Analysis, Credit: 

Stephanie Wood

Source Manuscript: 
Date of Manuscript: 


Creator's Location (and place coverage): 

Huejotzingo, Puebla, Mexico

Semantic Categories: 
Cultural Content & Iconography: 
Parts (compounds or simplex + notation): 
Other Cultural Influences: 

números, bolsas sagradas, cuentas, pesos, xiuhpohualli, año, turquesa, xihuitl

Glyph or Iconographic Image: 
Relevant Nahuatl Dictionary Word(s): 

xiquipil(li), a special sack or bag for cacao beans or incense; or, the number 8,000, https://nahuatl.wired-humanities.org/content/xiquipilli
ome, two, https://nahuatl.wired-humanities.org/content/ome

Image Source: 

The Codex Chavero of Huexotzinco (or Códice Chavero de Huexotzinco), https://www.loc.gov/resource/gdcwdl.wdl_03246_001/?sp=1

Image Source, Rights: 

The Codex Chavero of Huexotzinco (or Códice Chavero de Huexotzinco) is held by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México. It is published online by the World Digital Library and the Library of Congress, which is “unaware of any copyright or other restrictions in the World Digital Library Collection.”

Historical Contextualizing Image: